Mindorenians Hit it Again!
Tiberias, Capernaum and See of Galilee Trip
“You and US together for fun” was the MIS theme in the previous organized fund raising trip in the above mention Holy Places in Israel. The trip was designed to promote camaraderie, fun and enjoyment among our officers, members and guests.
We left Tel-Aviv around 7:30 pm and arrived at our destination, Tiberias at 10 pm where we stayed overnight. Tiberias is located in a western part of the country and has its peaceful and majestic attractions. Local restaurants, the Lake and its wonderful sceneries mesmerized us all.
The travel started by a prayer led by Mrs. Merly Ganan to guide our journey. Our President, Ms. Nenette Gajisan welcomed the participant and all the officers joined to make the trip more fun. At the bus, Jenny Tecson together with our treasurer, Cheryl Sevegan dominated the floor and hit it again by their jokes that made the entire bus flowed with laughter. Thanks Jen and Che for the laughs, you guys are truly amazing!
During that night, we also celebrated the birthday of our member, Ms. Beth Dimaano together with us. She made her wish, blew the cake and toast for her success that made the trip unforgettable for her and us.
We played Traditional games in celebration of the Philippines 111th Independence celebration, “Habulan”, “Patintero” and more that hooked our attention and enjoyed the night, (it made us remember our childhood memories with these game, what a great feeling!). They danced, drank, chat laugh that temporarily brought them into different happy world away from the ordinary world of Care Giving. What a great night we had, sleeping on the tent while the place flowed with laughter and positive energy.
The following morning we proceeded to Jordan River where John The Baptist made baptism to Jesus. We felt the sanctity of the place as we went inside. We took pictures and enjoyed the feeling of being been there as we felt the holiness of the place.
Afterwards, we moved on to our next destination, the Sea of Galilee. We went to Kibuts Ginosaurem where Yigal Allon center was located. Its wonderful architectural design caught us in full awe. There, we rode Noah TVJ 9026 boat. The sailing started and we raised the Philippine flag and sang the national anthem. This moment made us so happy as we celebrated the Independence Day that moment. Thanks to the warm and friendly crew of the boat. We really enjoyed the journey, breathtaking views, with the wonderful people as described. The crew put on music and everybody went on dancing non-stop! It was really fun. (Let’s go Latino guys, laugh out loud!) The Sea of Galilee is the place where Jesus walked on the water and calmed the storm.
We docked into God’s Holy place Capernaum. We saw the remains of St. Peter’s Church where inner room became the first Christian church.
The White Synagogue which we’re seeing today lies above some portions of the earlier basalt synagogue in existence during Jesus’ day. In 69 A.D., the Romans destroyed it during the First Jewish Revolt.
Afterwards we moved to our final destination where Jesus made the miracle of feeding thousands of people with bread and fish. Tabgha, is located near Capernaum. Inside is the sacred Church of Heptapegon. We offered prayers and felt the holiness of the place.
Afterwards, we left the place for lunch. We shared the delicious lunch prepared by our very good and industrious chef, our Vice Pres. Juvy Sarmiento and Ms. Neri Gain. Thanks guys for the wonderful lunch.
We went home tired, exhausted but fulfilled, satisfied and happy.
Our appreciation and sincere gratitude for all the participants who joined the trip, thanks for sharing your precious time with us and we will treasure it forever. See you next time folks!
Mabuhay ang Lahing Mangyan at ang Lahing Pilipino sa mundo! God bless us all.
Last May 03, 2009 more than 150 Filipino Workers in Israel gathered together to celebrate the Labor Day and Flores De Mayo . Different participants from different group organizations joined the activities. Among them were Philippine Embassy, Ilonggo Tribe, KMPI,KAMPI, Tarlakenos, Bolinao, SI, Kalahi, Vicentians, Mindorenians, Ilocanos, and more.
A lot of lovely children joined the Flores de Mayo event and made the event more lively.
Of course, Mindorenians will be there.
with our cute and lovely princes’ and princesses.
Philippine Embassy Staffs and Officials!
We also played parlor Games!
And Mindorenians won the “Best Slogan”.
The event was successfully done. Great job guys!
Thanks for coming everyone! See youa again!
Last April 10-11, the first Fund Raising Field Trip of Mindorenians surely brought pure fun and joy to all the groups participated. We left Tel-aviv at around 8:00 pm going to the Dead Sea.
While on the bus, here’s the guys doin’
These guys are really cool. From Tel-Aviv until the destination, they were laughing and just having fun. We had trivia games, it’s your joke and lot of games to entertain them.
When we finally arrived there, here’s the scenes..
Look at what they’re doing!
and here’s more!
These guys are really cool and made us laugh till death. Love you guys!
We also visited Masada, the Fortress. I am really amazed of this place.
Masada (Hebrew for fortress), is situated atop an isolated rock cliff at the western end of the Judean Desert, overlooking the Dead Sea.
It is a place of gaunt and majestic beauty. On the east the rock falls in a sheer drop of about 450 meters to the Dead Sea (the lowest point on earth, some 400 m. below sea level) and in the west it stands about 100 meters above the surrounding terrain. The natural approaches to the cliff top are very difficult. It was really amazing! With it’s breathtaking views overlooking the Dead Sea and Jordan area, we were really astonished of it’s magnificence. Their historic contribution is Israel’s history between the Roman empire really wowed me. We saw all the artifacts and the entire kingdom during their regime that are worth remembering. This is the place where the defenders – almost one thousand men, women and children – led by Eleazar ben Ya’ir, decided to burn the fortress and end their own lives, rather than be taken alive.
The heroic story of Masada and its dramatic end attracted many explorers to the Judean desert in attempts to locate the remains of the fortress. The site was identified in 1842, but intensive excavations took place only in 1963-65, with the help of hundreds of enthusiastic volunteers from Israel and from many foreign countries, eager to participate in this exciting archeological venture. To them and to Israelis, Masada symbolizes the determination of the Jewish people to be free in its own land.
After that we proceed to Jericho,
a Palestinian Area governed by Jordan government. It was my first time to enter into Palestinian area and i am ambivalent though i am excited how Arab people lives. We passed through Israel border and after 50m entered into Arab border which brought me a little nervous feeling.
We visited the Monastery of Temptation, Jericho. The summit of Mount of Temptation, rising to a height of 350 meters above sea level and commanding a magnificent and panoramic view of the Jordan Valley, is the site where Jesus (pbuh) spent forty days and forty nights fasting and meditating during the temptation of Satan, about 3 km northwest of Jericho.
A Greek Orthodox monastery was built in the 6th century over the cave where Christ (pbuh) stayed. This spot is another of the holy sites said to have been identified by Queen Helena in her pilgrimage of 326 AD.
The mountain; which from early Christian times has been called the Moun
t of Temptation; was referred to as “Mons Quarantana” by the Crusaders in the first half of the 12th century, and is locally known as Quruntul mountain (from Quaranta meaning forty, the number of days in the Gospel account of Christ’s fast).
To climb up the bare, rocky slopes of Quruntul mountain might sound daunting, as the path leading to the Monastery of the Temptation is very steep and difficult to ascend but is well worth the walk, which is in fact a trek of only 15-30 minutes but we’re lucky because we took the cable car but still i am afraid because of it’s shaky position. And when we got there, my fear of heights heightened again when i saw how steep the cliffs are and i need to wear my shades so i am not conscious to climb into the monastery. But it’s really worth our time and effort.
The nearly 30 to 40 caves on the eastern slopes of the mountain have been inhabited by monks and hermits since the early days of Christianity.
We really enjoyed the entire trip, so fulfilling and tiring but it’s worth it.
We got back to Tel-Aviv at 5pm Saturday with smile on our faces. See you next time guys! muah!
Ang Mahal na Araw ay ang panahon ng paggunita at pagbabalik-loob ng mga Kristiyanong Filipino sa pinaniniwalaan nilang diyos na tagapagligtas na kinakatawan ni Hesuristo. Taon-taon, ipinagdiriwang ito ng mga Filipino upang palalimin ang kanilang pananampalataya, habang binubuhay ang mahabang tradisyon ng mga Kristiyano, gaya ng pag-aayuno at pamamanata. Nakikiisa ang mga Filipino sa ginawang pagpapakasakit ni Hesukristo para sa kaligtasan ng buong daigdig. Naniniwala sila na muling nabuhay si Hesukristo at magbabalik bilang patotoo sa mga ipinangaral nito sa kaniyang mga alagad at mananampalataya.
Ang Mahal na Araw ay nagsisimula pagsapit ng Miyerkoles ng Abo, ang araw na kinukrusan ng abo sa noo ang mga deboto bilang tanda ng kanilang pagsisisi. Paalaala rin iyon na “sa abo nagmula ang lahat, at sa abo rin magbabalik pagsapit ng wakas.” Miyerkoles ng Abo ang naghuhudyat ng pagbubukas ng panahon ng pagsisisi, pag-aayuno, at pangungumpisal, na pawang paghahanda sa malagim na pasyon ni Hesukristo sa kamay ng kaniyang mga tagausig. Tumatagal nang 40 araw ang taunang tradisyon, at nagtatapos sa Pasko ng Pagkabuhay ni Kristo na ginaganap pagsapit ng Linggo.
Kilala ang mga Filipino sa paggunita ng Mahal na Araw. Ito ang kanilang paraan upang magbalik-loob sa Diyos at talikuran ang kanilang mga maling pamumuhay.
- Di pagkain ng karne
- Pagbibigay ng limos
Mga Gawain sa Mahal na Araw
- Pabasa—Inaawit o kaya’y binabasa ng mga deboto ang mahabang pasyon ni Hesukristo. Ang nasabing pasyon na nasa anyong patula ay hango sa Bibliya ng mga Katoliko Romano. Ang grupo ng mang-aawit ay kakanta nang sabay sa saliw ng luma o bagong kanta.
- SenakuloGinaganap sa lansangan o entablado, ang senakulo ay pagsasadula ng mga pangyayari hinggil sa mga dinanas ni Hesukristo bago at pagkaraan ipako siya sa krus. Hango ang nasabing tradisyon sa Bibliya at iba pang tekstong apokripa. Pinakatanyag na senakulo ang ginaganap sa Marinduque, na tinawag na Pista ng Moriones.
- Paghahagupit ng latigo sa harap ng Madla—Ito ang pagsasadula ng pagpapahirap at pagkamatay ni Kristo na ipinako sa krus. Ginagawa ito ng mga Katoliko na may panata, gaya ng masisilayan sa Pampanga at Rizal. Ang gayong pamamanata ay ang paraan ng mga deboto upang magpasalamat sa mga biyayang natamo nila sa Maykapal.
Kilala ang Cutud sa pagkakaroon ng ganitong gawain. Ang mga namamanata ay nakasuot lamang ng pantalon , may takip ang mukha ng mga deboto, at ang ulo ay may koronang tinik. Ang kanilang katawan ay hinahagupit ng latigo na may mga pako sa dulo.
Ang Biyernes Santo ang tanda ng pagkamatay ni Kristo. Karamihan sa mga bayan ay nagdaraos ng malaking prusisyon at ang mga imahen ng simbahan ay may balabal at talukbong ng itim na belo at nasa tuktok ng karosa. Isang paniniwala ng mga Filipino ay ang pagbabawal sa mga bata na maglaro sa araw na ito sapagkat patay si Kristo at kapag nasugatan ay matagal umanong maghilom. Bago magbukang- liwayway sa araw ng Pasko ng Pagkabuhay, eksaktong alas-kuwatro ay gaganapin ang salubong. Ang mga imahen ni Birheng Maria at ang imahen ng Kristong Buhay ay magsasalubong sa gitna ng bakuran ng simbahan, habang ang mga batang nakasuot ng pakpak ng anghel ay masayang nagsasaboy ng mga talulot at umaawit nang taimtim.
Mangyan is the generic name for the eight indigenous groups found in Mindoro island, each with its own tribal name, language, and customs. The total population may be around 100,000, but no official statistics are available because of the difficulties of counting remote and reclusive tribal groups, many of which have no contact with the outside world.
The ethnic groups from north to south of the island are: Iraya, Alangan, Tadyawan, Tawbuid (called Batangan by lowlanders on the west of the island), Buhid, Hanunoo. An additional group on the south coast is labelled Ratagnon. They appear to be intermarried with lowlanders. The group known on the east of Mindoro as Bangon may be a subgroup of Tawbuid, as they speak the ‘western’ dialect of that language.
Mangyan are mainly subsistence agriculturalists, planting a variety of sweet potato, upland (dry cultivation) rice, and taro. They also trap small animals and wild pig. Many who live in close contact with lowland Filipinos sell cash crops such as bananas and ginger.
Their languages are mutually unintelligible, though they share some vocabulary. Tawbuid and Buhid are closely related, and are unusual among Philippine languages in using the /f/ phoneme. Tawbuid is divided into eastern and western dialects. Western Tawbuid may be the only Philippine language to have no glottal phonemes, having neither /h/ or /ʔ/.
Their traditional religious world view is animistic (Animism). Around 10% have embraced Christianity, both Roman Catholicism and Evangelical Protestantism. New Testaments have been published in six of the languages.
“Mangyan” is the collective name of seven ethnolinguistic group inhabiting most of the highland region of Mindoro, the seventh largest island in the northern end of the vast basin of the Sulu Sea, south of Batangas and the mainland southern Luzon, and west of the Bicol region. Most parts of the island are mountainous. There are still small stretches of flatlands, and the rest are coastal areas. These plains are home to non-Mangyan groups such as Tagalog, Visayan, and Ilocano.
The exact etymology of the word Mangyan has not been identified or traced. It had been in use for a long time before the realization, in the present century, that there were actually several diverse groups making up the Mangyan population on the island. Based on existing studies, there are at least six different groups scattered throughout the island, all speaking related languages. The northern groups are the Iraya, Alangan, and theTadyawan. The southern groups are the Hanunoo, Buhid, and the Taubuhid who are also known as “Batangan” or “Bangon”. The Buhid and Batangan are closely related groups. A seventh group, the Ratagnon (sometimes called “Latagnon” or “Datagnon”), is said to be non-indigenous to Mindoro because they speak Cuyunon, a Visayan language. Some of the Mangyan groups are composed of smaller units or subgroups.
Rough estimates of population from NCCP-PACT: 1998 give the following figures:
Batangan – 36,000
Iraya – 35,000
Hanunoo – 18,500
Alangan – 13,500
Ratagnon – 10,500
Buhid – 6,500
Tadyawan – 2,000
The Iraya occupy the northwestern part of Mindoro, where one of the country’s highest peaks, Mount Halcon, is located. The word “Iraya” is derived from the prefix “i” – denoting people, and “raya”, a variation of “laya” which means “upstream,” “upriver” or “upland”. Thus the meaning of the word is “people from upstream” or “uplanders”. Historically, however, the Iraya occupied the coastal region in some distant past, until they were pushed further inland by settlers from other places. The word also means “man”, “person”, and adult”.
The Alangan occupy northwest central Mindoro. One theory about this term is that it could mean “a group of people whose culture is awkward”, from the Tagalog word alangan, which means among other things “uncertainty”, “doubt” or “precariousness”.
There is scant information available regarding the Tadyawan, who live in sparse settlements in the northeast part of the island.
The Batangan or Taubuhid (also Tawbuhid), the most numerous of the Mangyan groups, occupy the central highlands of the island in the Occidental Mindoro. They live in a region where mountains tower 1950 m high. The word “batangan” derives from “batang”, meaning “trunk of a felled tree”, and “an”, meaning “place”, and refers to a place where felled tree trunks may be found, probably a swidden field. The main economic activity of the Batangan is slash-and-burn farming. The Batangan are also known as Bangon or Taubuhid. Other names used to refer to them are Bukid, Bu’id, Buhid, and Buhil, despite the fact that there is a separate identifiable group to the south, the Buhid. Local subgroups
include the Bayanan and Saragan.
The Buhid occupy the south central part of Mindoro. Their territory just about equally straddles the eastern and western provinces comprising the island.
The Ratragon occupy the southernmost tip of the island province, quite close to the coast facing the Sulu Sea. They lie nearest the aquatic route going to Busuanga Island in the northernmost Palawan and the Cuyo islands, two places
where the language spoken is Cayunon, which is also used by the Ratagnon.
Of these groups, the Hanunoo have been the most studied in terms of ethnography. “Hanunoo”, according to the group’s language called Minagyan, meaning “genuine”, “real” or “true”. However, the members of this group call
themselves Mangyan, and use the term Hanunoo Mangyan or Mangyan Hanunoo only to distinguish themselves from the other Mindoro groups.
The Hanunoo Mangyan live in a mountainous area about 800 sqkm in the southeastern part of the island, mainly in Oriental Mindoro. Their territory is under the municipal jurisdiction of Mansalay, Bulalacao, and a certain part of San Jose, which is the capital of Occidental Mindoro. Christian lowlanders surround them on the east. To the north lie the Buhid, and to the southwest the Ratagnon. They are often referred to by their Buhid neighbors as the Mangyan patag – “Mangyan of the flatlands” — to distinguish them from the former who live in the higher hinterland of the island.
Despite their proximity to the lowland settlements of the Christians, the Hnunoo Mangyan have succeeded in insulating themselves from lowland influences, and this has helped them preserve their basic culture. As far as the Hanunoo are concerned, human beings can be classified into two categories: Mangyan and non- Mangyan. Thus, the Hanunoo, Buhid, Ratagnon, and all those who wear the traditional loincloth (Miyamoto 1975:14). It is for this reason that the Hanunoo Mangyan can speak of the Cordillera Ifugao as being Mangyan too, because their traditional wear is the loincloth (Miyamoto 1975:14). The term damu-ong is refer to all non-Mangyan peoples, and to all outsiders. As used by Hanunoo mothers to hush up their crying babies, the term is defined early on some kind of bogeyman of threat-object among the Hanunoo. The word kristiyano is often used as a synonym for “damu-ong” and suggests the negative image the Mangyan have of their Christian neighbors. This was observed by Miyamoto who asked several old Mangyan if they remembered anthropologist Conklin who conducted fieldwork between 1947 and 1957. They all remembered him fondly. One Hanunoo said that Conklin “was not a Christian” because “he was a very kind person” (Miyamoto 1975:16).
The pioneer settlers of the Mindoro Islands were the Aeta, referred to in the early Spanish accounts as the Chichimecos. It has been theorized that when the Malay immigrants arrived in Mindoro, they pushed the Aeta deep into the interior. The former, however, did not completely isolate the latter and instead continued bartering their commodities with forest products which were in turn traded with foreign merchants plying Philippine seas.
The Mangyan settled along the shores of Mindoro Island approximately 600-700 years ago. It is believed that they had come from the southern regions of the archipelago. They were gradually forced to leave their coastal settlements by more aggressive groups. It appears that the Mangyan have traditionally been an unwarlike people, choosing to give up an area uncontested rather than fight for it.
The earliest accounts, which mention Mindoro and its people, are found 13th century Chinese dynastic records. A number of Chinese state documents, particularly those written in the Sung and Ming dynasties, suggest that before the coming of the Spanish conquistadors, commercial trade was flourishing between the inhabitants of Mindoro and Chinese merchants. Objects unearthed on the island, such as ceramics, porcelain, large earthenware, beads, and glass object are evidence of precolonial trade, which contributed to the shaping of an
indigenous material culture among the early inhabitants of Mindoro.
The island was a viable and busy trading port, one of the many islands regularly visited by Chinese merchants. Chao Ju-Kua’s Chu Fan-Chi, written in 1225, mentions the island of Ma-i, believed to be the ancient name of the present day Mindoro. Other names associated with the island include Mait, Minolo, Min-to-lang, Mang-Yan San, and Ka-Ma-Yan. “Mait” is believed to be an old Chinese term meaning “gold”. Chinese references to the term ” Mangyan”, or
that which sounds like the present day word, could be evidence that it existed in earlier times.
In the 16th century Spanish colonizers overran the native settlements of Mindoro and reduced the island to vassalage. Spanish accounts describe the inhabitants of the coast as a well-dressed people who “wore showy headdresses of many colors turned back over their heads”, and who, more significantly, casually wore gold on their bodies. The conquistadors attacked villages, destroyed settlements, and pillaged the inhabitants of their possessions. The Spaniards exacted heavy tributes, imposed onerous monopolies and demanded forced service
from thesubjugated people. As a result, the people of Mindoro fled to the mountains.
Yet the natives were not completely defenseless or given to passive surrender. There existed native forts, which were surrounded by moats. The local warriors also used metal weapons, a fact, which surprised the Spanish forces. Excellent knowledge of metallurgy and martial skills characterized the defenders of Mindoro. But predictably, the technological superiority and firepower of European weaponry carried the day for the marauders.
One factor that could explain the outright hostility of the Spaniards towards the inhabitants of Mindoro was the presence of an old foe: Islam. Preacher-traders from southern Philippines had earlier succeeded in spreading the Islamic faith among a number of Mindoro natives. Spanish chroniclers relating events in Mindoro referred to the people there as the “Moros of
The colonialists imposed the Christian faith and their political will with much harshness and taught the Mangyan the ways of loyal subjection to the faraway European monarch.
Muslim incursions into Spanish-held territories intensified in the 17th century. For the European colonizers, the encounter with Islam in the Philippines was but a continuation of the centuries-old conflict in Europe and in the “holy Land”. For the Muslims on the Philippine archipelago, however, the wars with the Spaniards were simply a reaction to European incursion in the islands where Islamic influence had built up and spread over a long, evolutionary period of conversion and commerce. Branded as piratical attacks in some accounts, the Muslim expeditions were mainly responses to Spain’s occupation and control of Muslim territories.
During the Spanish colonial period, tremendous pressure was brought to bear upon the lives of the Mindoro natives, who found themselves the object of contention between two armies fighting for their spheres of influence. As a result of the Moro-Christian wars, the Mangyan of Mindoro were taken captives, sold as slaves, and sometimes killed without mercy. The island went through a period of depopulation. Trading deteriorated badly. A plague of malaria made conditions even worse. The rivalry of Christian and Muslim forces in the island of Mindoro went on intermittently for most of the 333 years of Spanish rule in the Philippines, such that the Mangyan suffers extreme pain and privation.
The Spanish regime ended, but the colonization of the Mangyan continued — and their marginalization with the rest of the other Philippinegroups grew apace with the imposition of the American colonial rule in the archipelago. American arms came with American anthropology. As with the Spanish derogation such as “savage” and “infidels”, the concept of “pagan”, “minority” and “non-Christian” entered current usage, referring to tribal communities in the Philippines such as the Mangyan.
The shy, withdrawn, and hardworking nature of the Mangyan came to the attention of the American entrepreneurs who saw their potential as a labor force. Such traits were valuable for an American-owned sugar estate that was to be established in Mindoro. When Secretary of the Interior Dean C. Worcester, who had an explorer’s background, approved the purchase and lease of a large piece of land to an American company, he set off a process of economic exploitation that perpetuated the pattern of colonial extraction started by the Spanish
government. Worcester’s activities didn’t go unnoticed. Nationalist writers of the El Renacimiento denounced him in a celebrated editorial. “Aves de Rapina”
(Birds of Prey), which gave rise to a controversial suit in 1908. The editorial pilloried the American colonial administration, and Worcester in particular, for exploiting the tribal peoples of the country in guise of “benevolence”.
The racist tribal policies adopted by the Americans abetted and perpetuated the discrimination against non-Christian indigenous groups in the Philippines. The Mangyan were forced to live in reservations, much like those created for the native American Indians, and relocated to areas far from lowland settlements inhabited mostly by the Tagalog. The American government favored such an isolation since “a people divided cannot effectively press for freedom” (Lopez 1976).
The cumulative effect of centuries of exploitation is being felt to this day. Wily lowlanders time and again have tricked the Mangyan intodubious debts, barters, labor contracts, and often succeeded in displacing the natives from their ancestral domain with the use of spurious land titles. It is no wonder that the Mangyan have become only too wary of the damuong, non-Mangyan, the transgressor. Displaced and dislocated, the various Mangyan groups sought
peace and freedom from the harassment in the deeper and higher parts of the mountainous interior of Mindoro, but their life has continued to be precarious. Natural disasters, inclement weather, limited food supplies, difficulties in taming the wild and rugged land, have exacerbated their subsistence level of life. “Illiteracy” has prevented them from coping with the challenge posed by “mainstream” society in terms of legal issues concerning land as well as development schemes that threaten their culture and ecosystem, and therefore their survival as a people.
The process of cultural disintegration and ethnic extinction appears to be irreversible, if proper intervention is not effected soon. Counterinsurgency campaigns, economic exploitation of Mindoro’s natural resources, landgrabbing and speculation, and the more gradual but potentially erosive influx of modernization and assimilation into lowland cultures are constant threats to the survival of the Mangyan and their centuries-old folkways.
Characteristically, the Mangyan avoid trouble at all costs, even losing territory they have long occupied. In the process, they continue to face instability in their living conditions and economic dislocations. Sadly, this process of dislocation and dispossession continues to the present. After Christian settlers came the loggers, and then the mining corporations. Today the
Mangyan find themselves with increasingly less space in which to conduct their age-old subsistence activities.
Since the Mangyan are swidden farmers, their spiritual beliefs are related to their means of livelihood. Agricultural rites suggest the importance of farming and the belief in spiritual beings or forces that can influence a good harvest.
The Hanunoo Mangyan believe in a Supreme Being who is referred to as the Mahal na Makaako, who gave life to all human beings merely by gazing at them. They believe that the universe, called sinukuban (“that which is covered) or kalibutan (“the whole surrounding”) has a globular shape “like a coconut”. All beings, visible or invisible, live in this space. The stratum of the earth is called the usa ka daga. The daga (land) is surrounded by a border area, which is dagat (sea). Beyond the dagat is the katapusan, the edge of the universe, covered with thick woods and rocks. Nothing lies beyond it. This is the home of the labang or the horrible creatures and evil spirits greatly feared by the Hanunoo. The labang can take on animal and human forms before killing and eating their victims. They are believed to roam the areas they used to frequent during their mortal existence until they move on to dwell in Binayi’s garden, where all spirits rest. Binayo is a sacred female spirit, caretaker of the rice spirits or the kalag paray. She is married to the spirit Bulungabon who is aided by 12 fierce dogs. Erring souls are chased by these dogs are eventually drowned in a caldron of boiling water. The kalag paray must be appeased, to ensure a bountiful harvest. It is for this reason that specific rituals are conducted in every phase of rice cultivation. Some of these rituals include the panudlak, the rite of the first planting; the rite of rice planting itself; and the rites of harvesting which consist of the magbugkos or binding rice stalks, and the pamag-uhan, which follows the harvest.
Batangan cosmogony is less clear. They believe in four deities, who are all naked. Two come from the sun and are male; two come from the upper part of the river and are female. They are believed to be children (Kikuchi 1984: 7). The paragayan or diolang plates play an important role in Batangan religious practices. These plates are owned by only a few families, and are considered heirlooms. They are essential in summoning the deities to all religious and curing rituals (Kikuchi 1984: 7).
A common attire for the Mangyan groups is the ba-ag or loincloth worn by males. Clothing is considered by the Mangyan as one of the main criteria distinguishing them from the damu-ong. A Hanunoo Mangyan male wears his ba-ag, topped by a balukas or cotton shirt. A female wears the ramit, an indigo-dyed short skirt, and a lambung or blouse. Their traditional shirt and blouses have on the back an embroidered motif called pakudus, from the Spanish word cruz,
meaning “cross”, which bears its shape. This motif is common on their bayong, bags made from the palm leaf buri and the black fern nito. Miyamoto believes that the pakudus motif might also be explained by the sacred number four and the mandala symbol often seen in Southeast Asian art.
Hanunoo men and women wear the hagkus or willed rattan belt with a pocket. Women wear the hulon, a belt made from nito, around their waist. They wear their hair long, and sometimes wear a headband made of beads or buri or nito. Hanunoo Mangyan of all ages and both sexes are fond of wearing necklaces and bracelets made from beads. These beads are used not only for decoration but also for magical, religious and judiciary purposes. They are used as adornments by lovers, in curing a sick person (white beads only), in rituals presided over by
the pandaniwan, and for paying fines, the quantity depending on the severeness of the wrongdoing.
Among the Iraya, males wear bahag or loincloth fashioned from a tree bark, the kaitong or belt, and the talawak or headband. The females wear the tapis or skirtlike covering made from bark, the lingob or belt, and the sagpan or pamanpan to cover the breast. They wear necklaces called kudyasan, made from tigbi seeds, and the panalingnaw or earrings.
Some Ratagnon males still wear the traditional loincloth, and the women wear a wraparound cotton cloth from the waistline to the knees. They weave a breast covering from nito or vine. The males wear a jacket with simple embroidery during gala festivities and carry flint, tinder, and other paraphernalia for making fire. They also carry betel chew and its ingredients in bamboo containers. Strings of beads or copper wire may adorn their necks. Both men and
women wear coils of red-dyed rattan at the waistline.
Among the Hanunoo, men forge and repair blades for knives, axes, bolo or long knife, spears, and other bladed instruments. Women traditionally spin, dye, and weave cotton cloth for clothing and blankets. Tailoring and embroidery of garments is usually women’s work, while men carve the handles and scabbards. Woven basketry is mainly women’s work, but sewn goods, twisted cordage, and other goods are craftedby both sexes.
Basketmaking is well developed among the northern Iraya and southern Hanunoo groups. Lane (1986: 141-144) describes the various kinds of Mangyan baskets.
The Iraya have the hexagonal household basket, which is always made in small sizes, from 18-20 cm in diameter. The materials used consists of soft and narrow strips of the buri palm leaf, which are then overlaid with nito strips. Another Iraya basket is the open grain basket made from bamboo strips, which are first blackened and dried. Variations in the weaving process produce the many designs of the basket.
The Hanunoo baskets are small, fine, and leatherlike in texture. Various designs such as the pakudus or cross pattern are created with split nito or red-dyed buri laid over strips of buri. The base of the basket is square but the mouth is round. Other types of Hanunoo basketry include purses and betel-nut carriers which come in round, polygonal, or other shapes. The covers fit snugly with the container.
The musical instruments found among the Mangyan are the gitara, a homemade guitar; the gitgit, a three-string indigenous violin with human hair for strings; the lantoy, a transverse nose flute; the kudyapi, a kind of lute; and the kudlung, a parallel-string bamboo tube zither. Most of these instruments are used by a male suitor in wooing a Mangyan female. A young man and his male friends strum the guitar and play the gitgit to announce their arrival at the house of the woman. The Hanunoo use the guitar to play harmonic chords and interludes between verses sung in one or two tones.
The Hanunoo use several kinds of flute. The transverse flute has five stops (unlike the Buhid’s palawta which has six), and is tuned diatonically. The pituh is a flute which is diatonically tuned, has finger-holes, but no thumb hole. The bangsi is an external duct flute, which has a chip glued on to the tube of the flute. Another type of aerophone, aside from the flutes, is the budyung, a bamboo trumpet which is also found among the Mandaya in Mindanao.
Two idiophones are used by the Hanunoo: the buray dipay, a bean-pod rattle used in ensemble with other kinds of instruments , and the kalutang, which are percussion sticks played in pairs to produce harmonies on seconds, thirds, and fourths (Maceda 1966: 646).
The Hanunoo also have an agung ensemble, which consists of two light gongs played by two men squatting on the floor: one man beats with a light padded stick on the rim of one of the gongs. Both performers play a simple duple rhythms (Maceda 1966: 646).
Music for the Hanunoo is part of celebrating ordinary and festive occasions. Accompanying themselves on these instruments as they recite their love poems, the Hanunoo Mangyan pay court to the women. During the wedding rituals, songs are sung, musical instruments are played, food is eaten, and wine is drunk. The songs of the Mangyan are lullabies, recollections of war exploits in the distant past, lamentations, lovelyrics, and stories based on persona.
by: Miniña R. Servano ,